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References on the history and structure of science, engineering, and technology
References are listed here alphabetically.  They are also classified under the topics discussed in other pages of this website.


Abbate, J. 1999.  Inventing the Internet.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Abernathy, W, J. 1978.  The Productivity Dilemma.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Abramson, A. 2003.  A History of the Television: 1942-2000.  Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.

ACM. 1987.  ACM Turing Award Lectures: the First Twenty Years, New York: ACM Press. (Contains A. J. Perlis’s “The synthesis of algorithmic systems,” D. E. Knuth’s “Computer programming as an art,” E. W. Dijkstra’s “The humble programmer,” D. M. Ritchie’s “Reflection on software research,” and more.”

ACS (American Cancer Society). 2002.  Cancer Facts & Figures 2002.

ACS and AIChE, Technology vision 2020, the US chemical industry. www.che,

Adam, J. 1996.  Architects of the net of nets.  IEEE Spectrum, 33(9): 57-63.

Adams, J. L. 1991.  Flying Buttress, Entropy, and O-Rings: The World of an Engineer.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Ahearne, J. F. 1997.  Radioactive waste: the size of the problem.  Physics Today, 50(6): 24-9.

Allen, R. and Billinton, R. 2000.  Probabilistic assessment of power systems.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 88(2): 140-62.

Amato, I. 2000.  Green chemistry proves it pays.  Fortune, 143(3), 270.

American Society for Engineering Education. 1994. Engineering Education for a Changing World.

Amin, M. 2000.  Modeling and control of electric power systems and markets.  IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 20(4): 20-4.

Anderson, B. D. O. 1993.  Controlled design: moving from theory to practice.  IEEE Control Systems, 13(4): 16-25.

Anderson, G. and Roskrow, B. 1994.  The Channel Tunnel Story.  London: E.& F.N. Spon.

Anderson, J. D. 1997.  A History of Aerodynamics and its Impact on Flying Machines.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Anderson, J. D. 2000.  Introduction to Flight, 4th ed.  Boston: McGraw Hill.

Anderson, R. N. 1998.  Oil production in the 21st century.  Scientific American, 278(3): 86-90.

Andrews, F. T. 2002.  The telephone network in the 1960s.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 40(7): 49-53.

Ansatas, P. T. and Warner, J. C. 1998.  Green Chemistry: Theory and Practice.  New York: Oxford University Press.  (Their “12 principles of green chemistry” is available at

Appenzeller, T. and Norman, C. 1997.  New eyes on hidden world.  Introduction to a special issue on imaging technologies in Science, 276 (27 June): 1981-98.

Appl, M. 1982.  The Haber-Bosch process and the development of chemical engineering.  In A Century of Chemical Engineering, ed. W. F. Furter, New York: Plenum; pp. 29-54.

Arden, B. W., ed. 1980.  What Can be Automated?  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Aristotle.  Ethics.  Translated by J. A. K. Thomson.  Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin (1955).

Aristotle.  Metaphysics.  Translated by R. Hope.  Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press (1952).

Armstrong, J. A. 1995.  What should industry expect from academic engineering research?  in National Academy of Engineering, Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise.  Washington DC: National Academy Press, pp. 59-68.

Armstrong, N. 2000. The engineered century.

Armytage, W. H. G. 1976.  A Social History of Engineering.  London: Faber and Faber.

Aronstein, D. C. and Piccirillo, A. C. 1997.  Have Blue and the F-117A.  Reston, VA: AIAA.

Arora, A. and Gambardella, A. 1998.  Evolution of industry structure in the chemical industry.  In Arora et al (1998), pp. 379-414.

Arora, A. and Rosenberg, N. 1998.  Chemicals, a U.S. success story.  In Arora et al. (1998), pp. 71-102.

Arora, A., Landau, R., and Rosenberg, N., eds. 1998.  Chemicals and Long-term Economic Growth.  New York: Wiley.

Arrow, K. J., Cottle, R. W., Eaves, B. C., and Olkin, I. 1996.  Education in a Research University.  Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Ashburn, A. 1988.  The machine-tool industry: the crumbling foundation.  In Is New Technology Enough? Hicks, D. A. ed.,  Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, pp.19-85.

Ashby, E. 1959.  Technology and the Academics.  London: Macmillan.

Ashton, G. 2001.  Growing pains for biopharmaceuticals.  Nature Biotechnology, 19: 307-11.

Augustine, N. R. 1994.  Socioengineering.  The Bridge, 24(3): 3-14.

Auyang, S. Y. 1995.  How is Quantum Field Theory Possible?  New York: Oxford University Press.

Auyang, S. Y. 1998.  Foundations of Complex-system Theories: in Economics, Evolutionary Biology, and Statistical Physics.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Auyang, S. Y. 2000.  Mind in Everyday Life and Cognitive Science.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Azuaje, F. ed. 2001  Genomes, man, machines.  Special report in IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, July/Aug. 18-21.


Backus, H. 1980.  Programming in America in the 1950s – some personal impressions.  In Metropolis et al (1980), pp. 125-36.

Badamis, V. V. 1998.  Home appliances get smart.  IEEE  Spectrum, 35(8): 36-40.

Bailey, J. E. 1991.  Towards a science of metabolic engineering.  Science, 252: 1668-91.

Bailey, J. E. 1995.  Chemical engineering of cellular processes.  Chemical Engineering Science, 50: 4091-4108.

Bailey, J. E. 1998.  Mathematical modeling and analysis in biochemical engineering: past accomplishments and future opportunities.  Biotechnology Progress. 14: 8-20.

Baily, J. E. 1999.  Emergence and evolution of metabolic engineering: from spontaneous mutation to gene therapy.  In Metabolic Engineering, S. Y. Lee and E. T. Papoutsakis, eds.  New York: Marcel, pp. xi-xv.

Ball, P. 1997.  Made to Measure: New Materials for the 21st Century.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Baran, P. 2002.  The beginning of packet switching: some underlying concepts.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 40(7): 42-8.

Barkovich, B. R. and Hawk, D. V. 1996.  Charting a new course in California.  IEEE Spectrum, 33(7): 26-31.

Bass, R. W. 1996.  Review of Kalman Filtering: Theory and Practice.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 84: 321-4.

Bassett, R. K. 2002.  To the Digital Age: Research Labs, Start-ups, Companies, and Modern Technology.  Johns Hopkins University Press.

Battershell, A. L. 1999.  The DoD C-17 Versus the Boeing 777.  Washington, DC: National Defense University.

Battin, R. H. 1982.  Space and guidance evolution – a personal narrative. AIAA Journal of Guidance and Control, 5: 97-110.

Battin, R. H. 2002.  Some funny things happened on the way to the moon.  AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 25: 1-7.

Bauer, H. A. 2000.  Antiscience in current science and technology studies.  In Segerstråle (2000), pp. 41-62.  

Bauer, M., ed. 1995.  Resistance to New Technology.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Baugh, S. G. and Roberts, R. M. 1994.  Professional and organizational commitment among engineers: conflicting or complementing?  IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 41: 108-8.

Baughman, R. H., Zakhidov, A. A., and de Heer, W. A. 2002.  Carbon nanotubes – the route toward applications.  Science, 297: 787-92.

Beer, J. J. 1958.  Coal tar dye manufacture and the origin of modern industrial research laboratory.  Isis 49, part 2 (156): 123-31.

Beizer, B. 2000.  Software is different.  Annals of Software Engineering, 10: 293-310.

Belanger, D. O. 1998.  Enabling American Innovation.  West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.  (History of engineering education).

Bell, R. and Bennett, P. A. 2000.  IEC 61508 functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety related systems.  Computing and Control Engineering Journal, 11(1): 3-5.

Bell, T. E. and Esch, K. 1987.  The fatal flaws in flight 51-2.  IEEE Spectrum (2): 36-51.  Compare to Vaughan, D. 1996.  The Challenger Launch Decision.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bellman R. and Kalaba, R. eds. 1964.  Selected Papers on Mathematical Trends in Control Theory, NewYork: Dover.

Bellman, R. 1967.  Introduction to the Mathematical Theory of Control Processes.  New York: Academic Press.

Bendix, R. 1956.  Work and Authority in Industry.  Berkeley: University of California Press.

Benes, J. J. 1996.  An industry evolves: lathes to computers.  American Machinist, 140(8): 43-132.

Bennett, S. 1979.  A History of Control Engineering: 1800-1930.  London: IEE Press.

Bennett, S. 1993.  A History of Control Engineering: 1930-1955.  London: IEE Press.

Bennett, S. 1996.  A brief history of automatic control.  IEEE Control Systems, 16(3): 17-25

Benvenuto, E. 1991.  An Introduction to the History of Structural Mechanics.  New York: Springer-Verlag.

Bergano, N. S. 2000.  Undersea fiber optic cable systems: high tech telecommunications tempered by a century of ocean cable experience.  Optics and Photonics News, 11(3): 20-5.

Berger, B. D. and Anderson, K. E. 1992.  Modern Petroleum, 3rd edition.  Tulsa, OK: PennWell Books.

Berkan, R. C., et al. 1991.  Advanced automation concepts for large-scale systems.  IEEE Control Systems, 11(5): 4-10.

Bernal, J. D. 1971.  Science in History, 4 volumes.  Cambridge, MIT Press.  (Emphasizes application of science).

Berners-Lee, T. el at. 1994. The World Wide Web.  Communications of the ACM, 37(8): 76-82.

Bernstein, D. S. 1998.  Control experiments and what I learn from them: a personal journey.  IEEE Control System, 18(2): 81-7.

Berstein, J. 1984.  Three Degrees Above Zero: Bell Labs in the Information Age.  New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Bianco, P. and Robey, P. G. 2001.  Nature, 414: 118-20.

Bigelow, J. 1829. Elements of Technology.  Boston: Boston Press, pp.iii-iv.

Biggs, L.  1995.  Building for mass production: factory design and work process at the Ford Motor Company.  In Autowork, eds. R. Asher and R. Edsforth, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 39-64.

Biglieri, E. and Torino, P. D. 2002.  Digital transmission in the 21st century: conflating modulation and coding.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(5): 128-34.

Biglieri, E. and Torino, P. D. 2002.  Digital transmission in the 21st century: conflating modulation and coding.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 49(5): 128-

Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P., and Pinch, T. J. eds. 1987.  The Social Construction of Technology Systems. Cambridge: MIT Press. p.12.

Billington, D. P. 1983.  The Tower and the Bridge: The New Art of Structural Engineering.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Billington, D. P. 1984.  Bridges and the new art of structural engineering.  American Scientists, 27(1): 22-31.

Bilstein, R. E. 1996.  Stages to Saturn: A Technological History of the Apollo/Saturn Launch Vehicles.  Washington DC: NASA.

Bird, R. B., Steward, W. E., and Lightfoot, E. N. 1960.  Transport Phenomena.  New York: Wiley.

Black, H. S. 1977.  Inventing the negative feedback amplifier.  IEEE Spectrum, 14(12): 55-61.

Bloor, D. 1991.  Knowledge and Social Image, 2nd ed.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bode, H. W. 1960.  Feedback – the history of an idea.  Reprinted in Selected Papers on Mathematical Trends in Control Theory, eds. R. Bellman and R. Kalaba, NewYork: Dover, pp. 106-23.

Boehm, B. W. 1976.  Software engineering.  IEEE Transactions on Computers, 25: 1226-41.

Booker, P. J. 1963.  A History of Engineering Drawing.  London: Chatto & Windus.

Boonton, R. C. and Ramo, S. 1984.  The development of systems engineering.  IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-20, 306-9.

Borwein, J. M. and Borwein, P. B. 2001.  Challenges in mathematical computing.  Computing in Science and Engineering, 3(3): 48-54.

Borwn, D. E. 2002.  Inventing America: From the Microwave to the Mouse.  Cambridge, MIT Press.

Bourbaki, N. 1984.  Elements of the History of Mathematics.  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Bourque, P., Dupuis, R., Abran, A, Moore, J. W., and Tripp, L.  1999.  The guide to the software engineering body of knowledge.  IEEE Software, 16(6): 35-44.

Bowden, G. 1995.  Coming of age in STS: some methodological musings.  In Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, ed. S. Jasanoff.  Sage.

Bowers, B. 1982.  A History of Electric Light and Power.  London: Peter Peregrinus.

Boyer, C. B. 1985.  A History of Mathematics.  Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Branscomb, L. M. 1998.  From science policy to research policy.  In Branscomb and Keller (1998), pp. 112-39.

Branscomb, L. M. and Florida, 1998.  Challenges to technology policy.  In Branscomb and Keller (1998), pp. 2-38.

Branscomb, L. M. and Keller, J. H., eds. 1998.  Investing in Innovation.  Cambridge: MIT Press.  This anthology contains papers such as “From science policy to research policy” by L. M. Branscomb; “University-industry relations: the next four years and beyond” by H. Brooks and L. P. Randazzese; “Industrial consortia” by D. Roos, F. Field, and J. Neely.

Bray, J. 1995.  The Communications Miracle.  New York: Plenum.

Bretz. A. 2000.  X marks the spot, maybe.  IEEE Spectrum, 37(4), 26-36.

Briggs, A. ed. 1992.  The Science of New Materials.  Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

Brill, J. H. 1998.  Systems engineering – a retrospective view.  Systems Engineering 1: 258-66.

Brinkman, W. F. and Lang, D. V. 1999.  Physics and the communications industry.  Review of Modern Physics, 71: S480-8.

Brock, W. H. 1992.  History of Chemistry.  New York: Norton.

Brooks, F. 1995.  The Mythical Man-month, 2nd ed.  New York: Addison Wesley.

Brooks, F. 1996.  The compute scientist as toolsmith II.  Communications of the ACM, 39(3): 61-8.

Brooks, H. 1964.  The scientific adviser, in Scientists and National Policy-making, eds. R. Gilpin and C. Wright, New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 76.

Brown, J. S. 1998.  Seeing differently: a role for pioneering research.  Research Technology Management, 41(3): 24-33.

Brown, L. 1999.  A Radar History of World War II: Technical and Military Imperatives.  Bristol, UK: Institute of Physics.

Brown, M. E. 1992.  Flying Blind: The Politics of the U.S. Strategic Bomber Program.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Brown, S. F.  2002.  How do you feel about nuclear power now?  Fortune, March 4, pp. 130-4.

Bruce, J. P., Lee, H., and Haites, E. F., eds.  1995.  Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change.  New York: Cambridge University Press, chapters 1 and 2 explains the approaches in assessing the risks of global warming.

Bruce, J. P., Lee, H., and Haites, E. F., eds.  1995.  Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bucciarelli, L. L. 1995.  Designing Engineers. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Buchanan, R. A. 1985. The rise of scientific engineering in Britain.  British Journal for the History of Science, 18: 218-33.

Buchanan, R., ed. 1996.  Engineers and Engineering.  Beth University press.

Bud, R. 1993.  The Uses of Life: A History of Biotechnology.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Buderi, R. 2000.  Engines of Tomorrow.  New York: Simon & Schuster

Bull, S. R. 2001.  Renewable energy today and tomorrow.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 89: 1216-27.

Burger, A. 1976.  Biomedical sciences: the past 100 years.  Chemical and Engineering News, April, 146-62.

Burstall, A. F. 1963.  A History of Mechanical Engineering.  London: Faber and Faber.

Burton, S. G., Cowan, D. A., and Moodley, J. M. 2002.  The search for the ideal biocatalyst.  Nature Biotechnology, 20: 37-45.

Bush, V. 1945.  Science, the Endless Frontier: A Report to the President.  Washington, D. C.: Public Affairs Press.

Bush, V. 1946.  Endless Horizon.  Washington, D. C.: Public Affairs press.

Bush, V. 1965.  The engineer.  In Listen to Leaders in Engineering, A. Love and J. S. Childers, eds. (Tupper & Love, Atlanta, 1965), pp.1-15.

Bush, V. 1965.  The engineer.  in Love and Childers (1965), pp. 1-15.

Bush, V. 1970.  Pieces of the Action.  New York: William Morrow.

Butrica, A. ed. 1997.  Beyond the Ionosphere: Fifty Years of Satellite Communications.  (Washington DC: NASA).

Buus, H., McLees, R, Orgun, M, Pasztor, E, and Schultz, L. 1997.  777 fight controls validation process.  IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 33: 656-66.


Cahn, R. W. 2001.  The Coming of Material Science.  Amsterdam: Pergamon.

Callilau, R. and Ashman, H. 1999.  Hypertest in the Web – a history.  ACM Computing Surveys, 31(4es): 1-6.

Callon, M. 1986.  Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and fishermen of St Brieuc Bay.  In Power, Action, and Belief: a New Sociology of Knowledge, ed. J. Law, London: Routledge, pp. 196-233.

Calvert, M. A. 1967.  The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910.  Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Press.

Campbell-Allen D. and Davis, E. H. eds. 1979. The Profession of a Civil Engineer.  Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Campbell-Kelly, M. 2003.  From Air Reservation to Sonic the Hedgehog: a History of the Software Industry.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Campbell-Kelly, M. and Aspray, W. 1996.  Computer: A History of the Information Machine.  New York Basic Books.

Cardwell, D. 1995.  The Norton History of Technology.  New York: Norton.

Cardwell, D. S. L. 1971.  From Watt to Clausius: the Rise of Thermodynamics in the Early Industrial Age.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Cardwell, D. S. L. and Hills R. L. 1976.  Thermodynamics and practical engineering in the nineteenth century.  History of Technology, 1: 1-20.

Cascante, M., Boros, L. G., Comin-Anduix, B., Atauri, P., Centelles, J. J., and Keem, P. W. 2002.  Metabolic control analysis in drug discovery and disease.  Nature Biotechnology, 20: 243-9.

Cascante, M., et al.  2002.  Metabolic control analysis in drug discovery and disease.  Nature Biotechnology, 20: 243-9.

Cendes, Z. J. 1989.  Unlocking the secrets of Maxwell’s equations.  IEEE Spectrum, 26(4): 33.

Census Bureau. 1975.  Historical Statistics of the United States.

Census Bureau. 1997.  Economic Census.

Census Bureau. 2001.  Statistical Abstract of the United States.

Cerf, V. C. 2001.  Beyond the post-PC Internet.  Communications of the ACM, 44(9): 35-42.

Ceruzzi, P. E. 1998.  A History of Modern Computing.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Chabert, J. 1999.  A History of Algorithms.  Berlin: Springer.

Chaffee, C. D. 1988.  The Rewiring of America: The Fiber Optics Revolution.  Boston: Academic Press.

Chaisson, E. J, 1994.  The Hubble War.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Chandler, A. D. 2001.  Inventing the Electronic Centuyt: the Epic Story of the Consumer Electronic and Computer Industries.  New York: Free Press.

Chandler, A. D. Jr. 1965.  The railroads: pioneers in modern corporate management.  Business History Review 39: 16-40.

Chandler, A. D. Jr. 1977.  The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Chandler, A. D. Jr. ed., 1964.  Giant Enterprise: Ford, General Motors, and the Automobile Industry.  Neew York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Chandra, J., March, S. T., Mukjergee. 2000.  Information systems frontiers.  Communications of the ACM, 43(1): 71-9.

Chapman, K. 1991.  The International Petrochemical Industry.  Oxford: Blackwell.

Chapuis, R. J. and Joel, A. E. 1990.  Electronics, Computers and Telephone Switching.  Amsterdam: North Holland.

Charlton, T. M. 1982.  A History of Theory of Structures in the Nineteenth Century.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Chetty, M. and Buyya, R. 2002.  Weaving computational grids: how analogous are they with electrical grids?  Computing in Science and Engineering, 4(4): 61-72.

Chovan, T. and Guttman, A. 2002.  Microfabricated devices in biotechnology and biochemical processing.  Trends in Biotechnology, 20(3): 116-22.

Chowdhury, B. 2000.  Power education at the crossroads.  IEEE Spectrum, 37(10): 64-8.

Christie, R. D., Wollenberg, B. F., and Wangensteen, I. 2000.  Transmission management in the deregulated environment.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 88(2): 170-95.

Clayton, N. 2002.  SCOT: Does it answer?  Technology and Culture, 43: 451-60.

Cloutier, J. R., Evers, J. H., and Feeley, J. J. 1989.  Assessment of air-to-air missile guidance and control technology.  IEEE Control System Magazine, 9(5): 27-32.

Cohn, L. and Carey, J. 2001.  A comeback for nukes?  Businessweek, April 23: 38-40.

Cole, J. R. 1996.  The two cultures revisited.  The Bridge, 26(3) $$ .

Collins, B. L. 2000.  A standards infrastructure for the future.  Mechanical Engineering. 122(4): 86-92.

Collins, B. L. and Pinch, T. 1993.  The Golem.  New York: Cambridge  University Press.

Colton, C. K. ed. 1991.  Perspectives in Chemical Engineering.  Boston: Academic.

Comerford, R. 1999.  The path to open source systems.  IEEE Spectrum, 36(5): 25-31.

Comerford, R. 2000.  The new software paladins.  IEEE Specteum, 37(6): 56-61.

Compano, R. 2001.  Trends in nanoelectronics.  Nanotechnology, 12: 85-8.

Condit, P. M. 1994.  Focusing on the customer: How Boeing Does it.  Research Technology Management,  37(1): 33-7.

Constant, E. W. II. 1980.  The Origins of the Turbojet Revolution.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Constant, E. W. II. 1999.  Reliable knowledge and unreliable stuff: On the practical role of rational beliefs.  Technology and Culture, 40: 324-57.

Coopersmith, J. 1993.  Facsimile’s false start.  IEEE Spectrum, 30(2): 46-9.

Corey, E. R. 1997.  Technology Fountainheads.  Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.

Corradini, M. et al. 2000.  The future of university nuclear engineering programs and university research and training reactors.  At

Costello, D. J., Hagenauer, J. Imai, H. and Wicker. S. B. 1998.  Applications of error-control coding.  IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, 44: 2531-

Cotter, D. et al. 1999.  Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing.  Science, 286: 1523-8.

Cottrell, A. 2000.  A centennial report.  MRS Bulletin, 25: 125-132.

Cowan, R. S. 1997.  A Social History of American Technology.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Cowie, J. H., Nicol, D. M., and Ogielski, A. T. 1999.  Modeling the global Internet.  Computing in Science & Engineering.  1(1): 42-50.

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Cusumano, M. A. and Selby, R. W. 1995.  Microsoft Secrets.  New York: Free Press.

Cusumano, M. A. and Selby, R. W. 1996.  How Microsoft competes.  Research Technology Management, 39(1): 26-30.


da Vinci, L. 1970.  The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, ed. J. P. Richter.  New York: Dover.

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Dennings, P. J., et al. 1989.  Computing as a discipline.  Communications of the ACM, 32(1): 9-23.

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