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References for science and technology studies

Iansiti, M. 1995.  Technology development and integration: an empirical study of the interaction between applied science and product development.  IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 42: 259-70.

IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Jubilee Issue, October 2000, contains many historic and visionary papers.

IEEE Control Systems Magazine frequently publishes historical perspectives.  Its jubilee issue 16(3) (June 1996) feature invited papers on the histories of automatic, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, stability, stochastic, robust control.

Ifrah, G. 2001.  The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer.  New York: Wiley.

Ilic, M., Skantze, P., and Visudhiphan, p. 2001.  Electricity troubles in California: who next?  IEEE Spectrum, 38(2): 11-4.

Institute of Electrical Engineers. 1995.  100 Years of Radio, IEE Conference Publication 411.

International Energy Agency. 2000.  Electricity Information.  Paris: International Energy Agency.

Ishida, M. 1997.  Japan: Beyond the model for lean production.  In Kochan et al (1997), pp. 45-60.

Israel, P. 1977.  From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Jackson, D. C. 1934.  The evolution of electrical engineering.  Electrical Engineering, 53: 770.

Jakobs, K. and Procter, R. 2001.  The making of standards: looking inside the work groups.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 39(4): 102-8.

Jamalipour, A. and Tung, T. 2001.  The role of satellites in global IT: trends and implications.  IEEE Personal Communications.  June, 5-15.

Jefferson, E. D. 1988.  The emergence of chemical engineering as a multidiscipline.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 84(1): 21-3.

Jezequel, J-M and Meyer, M. 1997.  Design by contract: the lessons of Ariane, IEEE Computer 30(1): 129-30.

Johnson, L. 1998.  A view from the 1960s: how the software industry began.  IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 20(1): 36-42.

Johnstone, B. 2001.  A bright future for displays.  Technology Review, April, 81-8.

Jones, W. D. 1998.  Should da Vinci be the standard?  IEEE Spectrum, 35(2) 68T2-T5.

Jordan, R. F. 1969.  A Concise History of Western Architecture.  London: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich.

Joshi, S. S. 1999.  The need for a systems perspective in control theory and practice.  IEEE Control Systems, 19(6): 56-63.

Joshphson, M. 1959.  Edison, a Biography.  New York: McGraw Hill.


Kahin, B. and Keller, J. H. eds. 1997. Coordinating the Internet. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Kahn, D. 1984. Cryptography and the origin of spread spectrum.  IEEE Spectrum, 21(9): 70-80.

Kailath, T. 1997.  Nobert Wiener and the development of mathematical engineering.  In Communications, Computation, control, and Signal Processing, ed. A. Paulraj, W. Raychowdbury, and C. D. Schaper, Boston: Kluwer, pp. 35-65.

Kalman, R. E. 1960.  A new approach to linear filtering and prediction problems.  Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Basic Engineering, 82D: 35-45.

Kalman, R. E. 1969.  Elementary control theory from the modern point of view.  In Topics in Mathematical System Theory, by R. E. Kalman, P. L. Falb, and  M. A. Arbib, New York: McGraw Hill, pp. 25-68.

Kant, I. 1781.  Critique of Pure Reason.  New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Kaplan, G. 2001.  Ethernet’s winning ways.  IEEE Spectrum, 38(1): 113-5.

Kaplan, G. and Rosenblatt, A. 1990.  The expanding world of R&D.  Special issue in IEEE Spectrum, 27(10): 28-78.

Kappel, T. A. and Rubenstein, A. H. 1999.  Creativity in design: the contribution of information technology.  IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 46: 132-43.

Katzer, J. R., Ramage, M. P., and Sapre, A. V. 2000.  Petroleum refining poised for profound changes.  Chemical Engineering Progress. July, 41-52.

Kayton, M. 1997.  A practitioner’s view of systems engineering.  IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 33: 579-87.

Keil, M, Cule, P. E., Lyytinen, K., and Schmidt, R. C. 1998.  A framework for indentifying software project risks.  Communications of the ACM, 41(11): 76-85.

Kelly, Thomas J. 2001.  Moon Lander: How We Developed the Apollo Lunar Module.  Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.

Kelves, D. 1979.  The physics, mathematics, and chemistry communities: a comparative analysis.  In Oleson, A. and Voss, J., eds. 1979.  The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America, 1860-1920.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 139-72.

Kennedy, M. 1991.  The evolution of the word “biotechnology.”  Trends in Biotechnology, 9: 218-20.

Khosla, C. and Keasling, J. D. 2003.  Metabolic engineering for drug discovery and development.  Nature Review: Drug Discovery, 2: 1019-1025.

Kilby, J. S. 1976.  Invention of the integrated circuit.  IEEE Transactions in Electron Devices, ED-23: 648-54.

Kirby, M. W. 2000.  Operations research trajectories –Anglo-American experience from the 1940s to the 1990s.  Operations Research, 48: 661-70.

Kirkham, R. L. 1992.  Theories of Truth: a Critical Introduction.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Kitcher, P. 1998.  A plea for science studies.  In Koertge (1998), pp. 32-57.

Klein, F. 1928.  Development of Mathematics in the 19th Century.  Brookline, MA: Math SCI Press.

Kleinrock, L. 1993.  On the modeling and analysis of computer networks.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 81: 1179-90.

Kline, R. 1995.  Constructing “technology” as “applied science.”  Isis, 86: 194-221.

Knuth, D. E. 1974.  Computing programming as an art.  In ACM Turing Award Lectures: The First Twenty Five Years, New York: ACM Press, (1987), pp. 33-46.

Knuth, D. E. 1977.  Algorithms.  Scientific American. April, 236(4): 63-80.

Knuth, D. E. 1985.  Algorithmic thinking and mathematical thinking.  American Mathematical Monthly, 92(3): 170-81.

Knuth, D. E. and Pardo, L. T. 1980.  The early development of programming languages.  In Metropolis et al (1980), pp. 197-274.

Kochan, T. A., Lansbury, R. D., and MacDuffie, J. P. eds. 1997.  After Lean Production.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Koen, B. V. 2003.  Discussion of the Method: Conducting the Engineer's Approach to Problem Solving.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Koertge, N. ed. 1998. A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths about Science.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Kraft, M E. and Vig, N. J. 1997.  Environmental policy from the 1970s to the 1990s.  In Vig and Kraft (1997), pp. 1-30.

Kranakis, E. 1997.  Constructing a Bridge.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Kropp, E. P. 1997.  The chemical process industries: broadening the bases.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 93(1): 42-51.

Kucar, A. D. and Uddenfeldt, J. 1998. Introduction to the special issue on the mobile radio centennial.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 86: 1303-5. (Issue containing articles on Maxwell, Hertz, and Marconi as well as cutting edge technologies).

Kukla, A. 2000.  Social Constructionism and the Philosophy of Science.  London: Routledge.


Lacey, R. 1986.  Ford: The Man and the Machine.  Boston: Little, Brown.

Lahteenmaki, R. and Fletcher, L. 2002.  Public biotechnology 2001.  Nature Biotechnology, 20: 551-5.

Lampson, B. W. Hints for computer system design.

Landau, R. 1994.  Uncaging Animal Spirits: Essays in Engineering, Entrepreneurship, and Economics.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Landau, R. 1997.  Education: Moving from chemistry to chemical engineering and beyond.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 93(1): 52-65.

Landau, R. and Rosenberg, N. 1992.  Successful commercialization in the chemical process industries.  In Technology and the Wealth of Nations, eds. N. Rosenberg, R. Landau, and D. C. Mowery, Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 73-120.

Landauer, T. K. 1995. The Trouble with Computers: Usefulness, Usability, and Productivity. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lander, E. S. and Weinberg, R. A. 2000.  Genomics: journey to the center of biology.  Science, 287: 1777-82.

Landes, D. S. 1969.  The Unbound Prometheus.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Landes, Davis S. 1998.  The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some are So Rich and Some So Poor.  New York: Norton.

Langer, J. S. 1992.  Issues and opportunities in materials research.  Physics Today, 45: 24-31.

Langer, R. 1995.  Biomaterials and biomedical engineering.  Chemical Engineering Science, 50: 4109-21.

Langer, R. 2000.  Biomaterials: status, challenges, and perspectives.  AIChE Journal, 46: 1286-9.

Langer, R. and Vacanti, J. P. 1993.  Tissue engineering.  Science, 260: 920-6.

Lanza, R. L., Langer, R., and Vacanti, J. eds. 2000.  Principles of Tissue Engineering, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press.

Laplante, P., ed. 1996.  Great Papers in Computer Science.  New York: IEEE Press.

Larson, T. 2003.  The evolution of engineering ethics during the last 150 years.  Civil Engineering 73(3): 84-5.

Last, J. T. 1998.  Two communications revolutions.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 86: 170-5.

Latour, B. 1987.  Science in Action.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Latour, B. and Woolgar, S. 1986.  Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Laudan, R, ed. 1984.  The Nature of Technological Knowledge.  Dordrecht: Reidel.

Lawler, A. 2000.  “Faster, cheaper, better” on trial.  Science, 288: 32-4.

Layton, E. T. 1971.  The Revolt of the Engineer: Social Responsibility and the American Engineering Profession.  Cleveland: Case Western University Press.

Layton, E. T., Jr. 1976.  American Ideologies of Science and Engineering.  Technology and Culture, 17: 688-701.

Layton, E. T., Jr. 1991.  A historical definition of engineering.  In Critical Perspectives on Nonacademic Science and Engineering, ed. P. T. Durbin, Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, pp. 60-79.

Leavitt, N. 2001.  Linux: at a turning point?  Computer, 34(6): 12-6.

Lee, G. L. and Smith, C., eds. 1992.  Engineers and Management: International Comparisons.  London: Routledge.

Lee, K. 1996.  Global Communications Regulation.  London: Pinter.

Leiner, B. M., Cerf, V. G., Clark, D. D., Kahn, R. E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D. C., Postel, J., Roberts, L. G., Wolff, S. S. 1997.  The past and future history of the Internet.  Communications of the ACM, 40(2): 102-8.

Leinwoll, S. 1979.  From Spark to Satellite.  New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Lester, M. 2000.  Communicate risk effectively.  Chemical Engineering Progress, June: 79-83.

Leutwyler, K. 1997.  What will really be.  Scientific American, July, 28-9.

Leveson, H. G. and Turner, C. S. 1993.  An investigation of the Therac-25 accidents.  IEEE Computer, 25(7), 18-41.

Lewis, W. K. 1959.  Evolution of the unit operations.  Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium Series, 55(26): 1-8.

Li, V. O. K. and Qiu, X. 1995.  Personal communication systems (PCS).  Proceedings of the IEEE, 83: 1210-44.

Lienhard, J. 2000.  The Engines of Our Ingenuity.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Light, W. and Collins, B. L. 2000.  Setting the standards.  Mechanical Engineering, 122(2): 46-53.

Lihach, N. 2000.  The distributed generator puzzle – piecing it together.  Power Engineering, 104(4): 20-7.

Lillard, A. S. 1997.  Other folks’ theories of mind and behavior.  Psychological Science, 8, 268-74.

Lin, J. C. 1999.  Applying telecommunication technology to health-care delivery.  IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 18(4): 28-39.

Lingua Franca, ed. 2000.  The Sokal Hoax: The Sham that Shook the Academy.  Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press.

Littlewood, B. and Strigini, L. 1992.  The risks of software.  Scientific American, November, 62-73.

Locke, R. 1985.  The relationship between educational and managerial cultures in Britain and West Germany.  In Managing in Different Cultures, eds. P. Joynt and M. Warner.  Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget AS, pp. 166-216.

Longstaff, T. A., Chittister, C., Pethia, R.  Are we forgetting the risk of information technology?  IEEE Computer, 33(12): 43-51.

Loui, M. C. 1996.  Strategic directions in research in theory of computing.  ACM Computing Surveys, 28: 565-89.

Love, A. and Childers, J. S. eds. 1965.  Listen to Leaders in Engineering.  Atlanta, GA: Tupper & Love.

Lovell, J. and Kluger, J. 1994.  Apollo 13.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Lowinger, T. C. and Hinman, G. W., eds. 1994.  Nuclear Power at the Crossroads.  Boulder CO: ICEEE.

Luke, H. D. 1999.  The origin of the sampling theorem.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 37(4): 106-8.

Lundgreen, P. 1990.  Engineering education in Europe and the U.S.A., 1750-1930: The rise of dominance of school cultures and the engineering professions.  Annals of Science 47: 33-75.

Lunney, E. A. 2001.  Computing in drug discovery, the design phase.  Computing in Science and Engineering, 3(5): 105-9.

Lurkis, A. 1982.  The Power Brink, New York: Icare Press.

Lysaght, M. J. and Reyes, J. 2001.  The growth of tissue engineering.  Tissue Engineering, 7: 485-93.


MacKenzie, D. 1990.  Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Maier, M. W. and Rechtin, E. 2000.  The Art of Systems Architecting.  Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Makansi, J. 2001.  California’s electricity crisis rooted in many failings.  IEEE Spectrum, 38(2): 24-8.

Mallett, R. L. 1998.  Why standards matter.  Issues in Science and Technology,

Mandelbaum, R. 2002.  Reap the wild wind.  IEEE Spectrum, 39(10): 34-9.

Mandell, M. 2000.  120,000 leagues under the sea.  IEEE Spectrum, 37(4): 50-4. (No mention of the capacity glut that plagues the telecom industry in the early 2000s.)

Mann, S. C. 2000.  The end of Moore’s law?  Technology Review, 103(3): 43-8.

Markus, K. W. and Gabriel, K. J. 1999.  MEMS: the systems function revolution.  Computer 32(10): 25-31.

Markus, M. L., Manville, B., and Agres, C. E. 2000.  What makes a virtual organization work?  Sloan Management Review, 42(1): 13-26.

Marx, K. 1867.  Capital, I.  New York: Vintage Books.

Marx, L. 1997.  Technology: the emergence of a hazardous concept.  Social Research, 64: 965-88.

Mascone, C. F. 1999.  Engineering the next millennium.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 95(10): 102-13.

Matkin, G. W. 1990.  Technology Transfer and the University.  New York: Macmillan International.

Mattrey, J. H., Sherer, J. M., and Miller, J. D.  2000.  Minimize emissions from semiconductor facilities.  Chemical Engineering Progress,  96(5): 1-7.

Maxor, S. 1995.  The history of the microcomputer – invention and evolution.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 83: 1601.

Maxwell, J. C. 1873.  A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.  New York: Dover.

Maydan, D. 2001.  The future of equipment development and semiconductor production.  Materials Science and Engineering, A302: 1-5.

Mayr, O. 1970.  The Origins of Feedback Control.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mayr, O. 1971.  Adam Smith and Concepts of Feedback System.  Technology and Culture, 12: 1-22.

McAdoo, M. 1998.  Companies steer new K-12 courses.  IEEE Spectrum, 35(4): 27-31.

McCartney S. 1999.  ENIAC: The Triumphs and Tragedies of the World’s First Computer.  New York: Walker.

McCloskey, J. F. 1987.  The beginnings of operations research, 1934-1914.  Operations research in World War II.  Operations Research, 35: 143-52, 910-25.

McCullough, D. 1982.  The Great Bridge.  New York: Simon & Schuster.

McKendrick, N. 1973.  The role of science in the industrial revolution.  In Changing Perspectives in the History of Science, ed. by M. Teich and R. Young, London: Heineman, pp. 274-319.

McMahon, A. M. 1984.  The Making of a Profession: A Century of Electrical Engineering in America.  New York: IEEE Press.

McRur, D. and Graham, D. 1981.  Fifty years of flight control: triumphs and pitfalls of the systems approach.  AIAA Journal of Guidance and Control, 4: 353-62.

Mead, C. and Conway, L. 1980.  Introduction to VLSI  Systems.  Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Meehan, R, L, 1981.  Getting Sued and Other Tales of the Engineering Life.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Meikins, P. and Smith, C. 1996.  Engineering Labor: Technical Workers in Comparative Perspective.  London: Verso.

Meindl, J. 2001.  Special issue on limits of semiconductor technology.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 89: 223-6.

Meldrum, D. 2000.  Automation for genomics.  Genome Research, 10: 1081-92, 1288-303.

Melliar-Smith, C. M. et al. 1998.  The transistor: an invention becomes a big business.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 86: 86-111.

Meredith, J. R. 2001.  Reconsidering the philosophical basis of OR/MS.  Operations Research, 49: 325-33.

Merkle, R. C. 1998.  Making smaller, faster, cheaper computers.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 86: 2384.

Mertens, S. 2002.  Computational complexity for physicists.  Computing in Science and Engineering, 4(3): 31-48.

Merton, R. K. 1968.  Social Theory and Social Structure.  New York: Free Press.

Mertz, L. E. and Viest, I. M. 1991.  The First 75 Years, a History of the Engineering Foundation.  New York: Engineering Foundation.

Mervis, J. 2001.  Student survey highlights mismatch of training, goals.  Science, 291: 408-9.  (The mismatch is especially glaring in the social sciences).

Messerchmidt, D. G. 1996.  The convergence of telecommunications and computing: what are the implications today?  Proceedings of the IEEE, 84: 1167-86.

Messina, P. et al. 1998.  Architecture.  Communications of the ACM, 41(1): 36-44.

Methe, D. T. 1995.  Basic research in Japanese electronic companies.  In Engineered in Japan: Japanese Technology-management Practices, eds. J. K. Liker, J. E. Ettlie, and J. C. Campbell.  New York: Oxford University press, pp. 17-30.

Metropolis, N., Howlett, J., and Rota, G. eds. 1980.  A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century.  New York: Academic Press.

Meyer, B. 2001.  Software engineering in the academy.  Computer, 34(5): 28-36.

Michell, G de. and Gupta, R. K. 1997.  Hardware/software co-design.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 85: 349-65.

Miles, R. F., ed. 1973.  Systems Concepts: Lectures on Contemporary Approaches to Systems.  New York: Wiley.

Miller, B. 1998.  Satellites free the mobile phone.  IEEE Spectrum, 35(3): 26-35.

Miller, D. P. 2000.  The commercial and ideological importance of being a “philosopher” in the case of the reputation of James Watt, 1736 – 1819.  History of Science, 38: 1-24.

Millman, S., ed. 1983.   A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: Physical Sciences, 1925 – 1980.  AT&T Bell Laboratories.

Millman, S., ed. 1984.  A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: Communication Sciences, 1925 – 1980.  AT&T Bell Laboratories.

Mindell, D. A. 2002.  Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing Before Cybernetics.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Mokyr, J. 1990.  The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Mokyr, Joel. 2002.  The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy.  Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Monden, Y. 1998.  Toyota Production System: An Integrated Approach to Just-in-time, 3rd ed.  Norcross, GA: Engineering and Management Press.

Moore, G. E. 1965.  Cramming more components onto integrated circuits.  Electronics, April 19, pp. 114-7.

Moore, G. E. 1995.  Lithography and the future of Moore’s law.  Optical/Laser Microlithography VIII: Proceedings of SPIE, 2440: 2-17.

Moore, G. E. 1996.  Some personal perspectives on research in the semiconductor industry.  In Engines of Innovation, eds. R. S. Rosenbloom and U. J. Spencer, Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, pp. 165-47.

Moore, G. E. 1998.  The role of Fairchild in silicon technology in the early days of “Silicon Valley.”  Proceedings of the IEEE, 86: 53-62.

Moore, T. 2000.  License renewal revitalizes the nuclear industry.  EPRI Journal, 25(3): 8-17.

Morari, M. and Gentilini, A. 2001. Challenges and opportunities in process control: biomedical processes.  AIChE Journal, 47: 2140-4.

Morgan, M. G. 1993.  Risk analysis and management.  Scientific American, July: 32-41.

Morgenstern, J. 1997.  The fifty-nine-story crisis.  Jouurnal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, 123(1): 23-9.

Morone, J. G. and Woodhouse, E. J. 1989.  The Demise of Nuclear Energy?  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Morton, D. 1999.  A snapshot of telephony at the turn of the century.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 87: 691-4.

Morton, D. 1999.  Viewing television’s history.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 87: 1301-4.

Moss, M. S, and Hume, J. R. 1977.  Workshop of the British Empire: Engineering and Shipbuilding in the West of Scotland.  London: Heinemann.

Mowery, D. C. and Rosenberg, N. 1998.  Paths of Innovation.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mowery, D. C., ed.  The International Software Market, New York: Oxford University Press.

Mudge, T. 1996.  Strategic directions in computer architecture.  ACM Computing Surveys, 24: 671-6.

Multhauf, R. P. 1959.  The scientist and the “improver of technology.”  Technology and Culture 1: 38-47.

Munson, R. 1988.  Deregulation and the power struggle.  IEEE Spectrum, 25(5): 61-3.

Murman, E. M., et al. 2002.  Lean Enterprise Value: Insights from MIT's Lean Aerospace Initiative.  Palgrave.

Murphy, B. T., Haggan, D. E., and Troutman, W. W. 2000.  From circuit miniaturization to the scalable IC.  Proceedings of the IEEE, 88: 691-702.

Murray, C. and Cox, C. B. 1989.  Apollo: The Race to the Moon.  New York: Simon & Schuster.

Musson, A. E. and Robinson, E. 1969.  Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Myer, B., et al. 1996.  Strategic directions in human-computer interaction.  ACM Computing Survey, 28: 794-82.

Myers, M. B. and Rosenbloom, R. S. 1996.  Rethinking the role of research.  Research Technology Management, 39(3): 14-18.


Nader, R. and Abbotts, J. 1977. The Menace of Atomic Energy.  New York: Norton.

National Academy of Engineering. 1995.  Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise.  Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Energy Policy Development Group. 2001.  National Energy Policy. 

National Nanotechnology Initiative (2000) at

Naughton, J. 2000.  A Brief History of the Future: the Origin of the Internet.  London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Nazaroff, W. W. and Alvarez-cohen, L., 2001.  Environmental Engineering Science.  New York: Wiley.

Nebekee, F. 2002.  Golden accomplishments in biomedical engineering.  IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 21(3): 17-47.

Neef, D., Siesfeld, G. A., and Cefola, J. eds. 1998.  The Economic Impact of Knowledge.  Boston: Butterworth.  Contains “Uncertainty and technological change” by N. Rosenberg and informative papers on the measurement and new economics of knowledge.

Nelson, R. R., ed. 1982.  Government and Technical Progress: A Cross-industry Analysis.  New York: Pergamon.

Nemerow, N. L. and Agardy, F. J.  2003.  Environmental Engineering, 5th ed.  New York: Wiley.

Neumann, P. G. 1995.  Computer-related Risks.  New York: ACM Press.

Newcomer, M. 1955.  The Big Business Executive.  New York: Columbia University Press.

Newton, I. 1953.  Newton’s Philosophy of Nature: Selection from His Writings, ed. H. S. Thayer.  New York: Hafner.

Niler, E. 2001. OECD says industrial biotech not realizing potentials.  Nature Biotechnology, 19: 493-4.

Nilsson, O. 2001.  Fundamental limits and possibilities of future telecommunications.  IEEE Communications Magazine, 39(5): 164-8.

Noble, D. F. 1977.  America by Design.  New York: Oxford University Press. (A Marxist account).

Nof, S. Y., Wilhelm, W. E., and Warnecke, H. 1997.  Industrial Assembly.  London: Chapman & Hall.

Norberg, A. L. and O’neill, J. E. 1996.  Transforming Computer Technology: Information Processing for the Pentagon, 1062-1980.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins.

Nordhaus, W. D. 1997.  The Swedish Nuclear Dilemma.  Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future.

Norris, G. 1995.  Boeing’s seventh wonder.  IEEE Spectrum, 32(10): 20-3.

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NRC (National Research Council). 1986.  Engineering Infrastructure Diagramming and Modeling.  Washington: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1988.  Frontiers in Chemical Engineering.  Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC (National Research Council). 1989.  Materials Science and Engineering for the 1990s.  Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NSB (National Science Board). 2002.  Science and Engineering Indicators 2002.

NSF, Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, pp.4-10.

Nye, D. E. 1997.  American Technological Sublime.  Cambridge: MIT Press.


O’Connor, D. C. 1979.  The engineer and the environment.  In The Profession of a Civil Engineer, ed. by D. Campbell-Allen and E. H. Davis.  Sydney: Sydney University Press, p.. 192-204.

O’Lone, R. G., ed. 1991.  Boeing 777 transport: a risky development approach.  Special section, Aviation Week & Space Technology, June 3, 134(22): 34-58.

Ohno, T. 1988.  Toyota Production System: Beyond Large-scale Production.  Cambridge, MA: Productivity Press.

Okrent, D. 1981. Nuclear Reactor Safety, on the History of the Regulatory Process.  Madison: University Of Wisconsin Press.

Oleson, A. and Voss, J., eds. 1979.  The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America, 1860-1920.  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.  Contains papers such as Rae, J. B. 1979.  “The application of science to industry” by J. B. Rae.

Oliphant, M. W. 1999.  The mobile phone meets the internet.  IEEE Spectrum, 36(8): 20-8.

OTA (Office of Technology Assessment).  1981a.  Nuclear Powerplant Standardization.  PB81-213589.

OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). 1984.  Nuclear Power in an Age of Uncertainty.  OTA-E-216.

Overbye, T. J. and Weber, J. D. 2001.  Visualizing the electric grid.  IEEE Spectrum, 38(2): 52-8.

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Oz. E. 1994.  When professional standard are lax: the CONFIRM failure and its lessons.  Communications of the ACM, 37(10): 29-36.


Pacey, A. 1974.  The Maze of Ingenuity.  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Pacey, A. 1990.  Technology in World Civilization.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Pakes, A. and Sokoloff, K. L. 1996.  Science, technology, and economic growth.  Introduction to a special issue in Proceedings of National Academy of Science, USA, 93: 12655.

Pannell, J. P. M. 1977.  Man the Builder: an Illustrated History of Engineering.  New York: Crescent Books.

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