|Engineering -- an endless frontier|
|Biotechnology and biological engineering|
and bioengineering have two dimensions. First, they use living
organisms to make desired products, as in using microbes to produce drugs.
Second, they use whatever means for promoting life, as in
making equipment for novel methods of medical diagnosis and drug
delivery. They involve the cooperation of many disciplines.
As advances in molecular biology and nanotechnology make more biological phenomena
susceptible to reliable control, bioengineering and biotechnology
are poised to soar in the twenty-first century.
Ashton, G. 2001.
Growing pains for biopharmaceuticals. Nature
Biotechnology, 19: 307-11.
Bailey, J. E. 1998.
Mathematical modeling and analysis in biochemical engineering: past
accomplishments and future opportunities. Biotechnology
Progress. 14: 8-20.
Burger, A. 1976.
Biomedical sciences: the past 100 years.
Chemical and Engineering News, April, 146-62.
Elder, A. I. 1970.
The history of penicillin production.
Chemical Engineering Progress Symposium, 66, No. 100.
Hobby, G. L. 1985.
Penicillin: Meeting the Challenge.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Niiler, E. 2001. OECD says
industrial biotech not realizing potentials.
Nature Biotechnology, 19: 493-4.
Reiss, T. 2001.
Drug discovery of the future: the implications of the human genome
project. Trends in Biotechnology,
J. C. 1982. The Enchanted Ring: The Untold Story of Penicillin.
Cambridge: MIT Press.
Burton, S. G., Cowan, D. A., and
Moodley, J. M. 2002. The search for
the ideal biocatalyst. Nature
Biotechnology, 20: 37-45.
Bailey, J. E. 1991.
Towards a science of metabolic engineering.
Science, 252: 1668-91.
Bailey, J. E. 1995.
Chemical engineering of cellular processes.
Chemical Engineering Science, 50: 4091-4108.
Baily, J. E. 1999.
Emergence and evolution of metabolic engineering: from spontaneous
mutation to gene therapy. In Metabolic
Engineering, S. Y. Lee and E. T. Papoutsakis, eds.
New York: Marcel, pp. xi-xv.
Cascante, M., et al.
2002. Metabolic control
analysis in drug discovery and disease. Nature
Biotechnology, 20: 243-9.
Khosla, C. and Keasling, J. D.
2003. Metabolic engineering for drug discovery and development. Nature
Review: Drug Discovery, 2: 1019-1025.
Khosla, C. and Keasling, J. D. 2003. Metabolic engineering for drug discovery and development. Nature Review: Drug Discovery, 2: 1019-1025.
Stephanopoulos, G. 2002.
Metabolic engineering by genetic shuffling.
Nature Biotechnology, 20: 666-8.
Stephanopoulos, G. 2002.
Metabolic engineering: perspective of a chemical engineer.
AIChE Journal, 48: 920-6.
Stephanopoulos, G. and Gill, R.
T. 2001. After a decade of
progress, an expanded role for metabolic engineering. Advances in Biochemical
Engineering/Biotechnology, 73: 1-8.
Bianco, P. and Robey, P. G. 2001.
Nature, 414: 118-20.
Garr, D. 2001.
The human body shop. Technology
Review, April, 73-9.
Griffith, L. G. and Naughton, G.
2002. Tissue engineering –
current challenges and expanding opportunities.
Science, 295: 1009-14.
Langer, R. 2000.
Biomaterials: status, challenges, and perspectives.
AIChE Journal, 46: 1286-9.
Langer, R. and Vacanti, J. P.
1993. Tissue engineering.
Science, 260: 920-6.
Lanza, R. L., Langer, R., and
Vacanti, J. eds. 2000. Principles
of Tissue Engineering, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press.
Lysaght, M. J. and Reyes, J.
2001. The growth of tissue
engineering. Tissue Engineering,
Saltzman, W. M. and Olbricht, W.
L. 2000. Building drug discovery
into tissue engineering. Nature
April, 1999. Special issue on
“The promise of tissue engineering.”
Strain, A. J. and Neuberger, J.
M. 2001. A bioartificial liver – state of the art. Science, 295: 1005-7.
Fagette, P. 1997.
Tracking the historical development of biomedical engineering: the 1960s
and 1970s. IEEE Engineering in
Medicine and Biology Magazine, 16(5): 164-72.
Geselowitz, D. B. and Geselowitz,
M. N. 1999. Bioelectrical
engineering and the “inside story” of the electrical century. Proceedings of the IEEE, 87: 1842-6.
Ghista, D. N. 2000.
Biomedical engineering: yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 19(6): 23-8.
Hench, L. L. and Polak, J. M.
2002. Third-generation biomedical
materials. Science, 295:
Hendee, W. R. 2002.
The National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering: history,
status, and potential impact. Annals
of Biomedical Engineering, 30: 2-10.
Langer, R. 1995.
Biomaterials and biomedical engineering.
Chemical Engineering Science, 50: 4109-21.
Lin, J. C. 1999.
Applying telecommunication technology to health-care delivery.
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 18(4): 28-39.
Morari, M. and Gentilini, A.
2001. Challenges and opportunities in process control: biomedical processes.
AIChE Journal, 47: 2140-4.
Nebekee, F. 2002.
Golden accomplishments in biomedical engineering.
IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 21(3): 17-47.
Rosen, J., Soltania, H., Redeff, R. J., and Laub, D. R. 1996. Evolution of virtual reality: from planning to performing surgery. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 15(3): 16-21.
Wolbarst, A. B. 1999. Looking Within: How X-Ray, CT, MRI, Ultrasound, and Other
Medical Images Are Created, and How They Help Physicians Save Lives.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
Azuaje, F. ed. 2001
Genomes, man, machines. Special
report in IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, July/Aug. 18-21.
Bud, R. 1993.
The Uses of Life: A History of Biotechnology.
New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chovan, T. and Guttman, A. 2002.
Microfabricated devices in biotechnology and biochemical processing.
Trends in Biotechnology, 20(3): 116-22.
Fitch, J. P. and Sokhansanj, B.
2000. Genomic engineering: moving
beyond DNA sequence to function. Proceedings
of the IEEE, 88: 1949-70.
Gaskell, G. and Bauer, M. W. eds.
2001. Biotechnology 1996-2000:
the Years of Controversy.
Hodgson, J. 2000.
Gene sequencing’s industrial revolution.
IEEE Spectrum, 37(10): 36-42.
Lahteenmaki, R. and Fletcher, L.
2002. Public biotechnology 2001.
Nature Biotechnology, 20: 551-5.
Lander, E. S. and Weinberg, R. A.
2000. Genomics: journey to the
center of biology. Science,
Meldrum, D. 2000.
Automation for genomics. Genome
Research, 10: 1081-92, 1288-303.
Saviotti, P. P. 2000.
The changing marketplace of bioinformatics.
Nature Biotechnology, 18: 1247-9.
Service, R. F. 2001.
High-speed biologists search for gold in proteins.
Science, 294: 2074-7.
Smith, J. E.. 1996.
Biotechnology, 3rd ed. New
York: Cambridge University Press.
Spengler, S. J. 2000.
Bioinformatics in the information age.
Science, 287: 1221-3.
Wu, T. D. 2001.
Bioinformatics in the post-genomic era.
Trends in Biotechnology, 19L 479-80.