Engineering -- an endless frontier
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Structures of engineering    
    Engineering's science, design, and management aspects
As the art and science of production, engineering transforms nature to serve large numbers of people.  To transform nature effectively requires knowledge in natural science; to serve people adequately requires knowledge about socioeconomic factors.  Internally, engineering has three aspects: engineering science, design and development, and management and organization.  Externally, it is closely allied with natural science on the one hand and industry on the other.  Together they constitute the main engines of technology.  

References on the general characteristics of engineering

(See also under engineer)

Adams, J. L. 1991.  Flying Buttress, Entropy, and O-Rings: The World of an Engineer.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Baugh, S. G. and Roberts, R. M. 1994.  Professional and organizational commitment among engineers: conflicting or complementing?  IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 41: 108-8.

Bucciarelli, L. L. 1995.  Designing Engineers. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Bush, V. 1946.  Endless Horizon.  Washington, D. C.: Public Affairs press.

Finch, J. K. 1961.  Engineering and science: a historical review and appraisal.  Technology and Culture, 2, 318-32.

Florman, S. C. 1976.  The Existential Pleasure of Engineering.  New York: St Martinís.  

Fredrich, A. J. ed. 1989.  Sons of Martha: Civil Engineering Readings in Modern Literature.  New York: ASEE.

Furnas, C. C. and McCarthy, J. 1966.  The Engineer.  New York: Time Life Books.

Koen, B. V. 2003.  Discussion of the Method: Conducting the Engineer's Approach to Problem Solving.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Lienhard, J. 2000.  The Engines of Our Ingenuity.  New York: Oxford University Press.

Love, A. and Childers, J. S. eds. 1965.  Listen to Leaders in Engineering.  Atlanta, GA: Tupper & Love.

Mascone, C. F. 1999.  Engineering the next millennium.  Chemical Engineering Progress, 95(10): 102-13.

Petroski, H. 1982.  To Engineer is Human: the Role of Failure in Successful Design.  New York: St. Martinís Press.

Petroski, H. 1996.  Invention by Design.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Petroski, H. 1996.  Design Paradigms: Case Histories of Errors and Judgment in Engineering.  New York: Cambridge University Press.

Simon, H. 1996.  The Sciences of the Artificial, 3rd ed.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Vincenti, W. G. 1990.  What Engineers Know and How They Know It: Analytical Studies from Aeronautical History.  Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press.

Wallich, P. 1984.  The engineerís job: it moves toward abstraction.  IEEE Spectrum, 21(6): 32-7.