|Engineering -- an endless frontier|
|America's science and engineering workforce|
constitute, after teachers, the largest profession in America.
Almost all of them have college education.
The diversity of their expertise is apparent in the large number of professional
societies. Most engineers engage in design and
development. A significant number are engineering scientists who
perform basic and applied research. Another large group consists
entrepreneurs and business managers.
The following table shows the characteristics of the US science and engineering workforce in 1999: number of employed scientists and engineers; median annual salaries of workers with highest degrees; percentage of S&E workers with primary or secondary activities in research and development. Source: National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators 2002, Tbs. 3-10, 3-12, 3-22; S&E Indicators 2000, Tb. 3-27.
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Floreman, S. 1979. The Civilized Engineer. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Fredrich, A. J. ed. 1989. Sons of Martha: Civil Engineering Readings in Modern Literature. New York: ASEE. (Many good portraits on engineers).
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Listen to Leaders in Engineering.
Atlanta, GA: Tupper & Love.
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Smiles, S. 1874. Lives
of the Engineers. London: John
Social and sociological images
Downey, G. L. and Lucena, J. C. 1995. Engineering studies. In Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, ed. by S. Jasanoff, G. Markle, J. Petersen, and T. Pinch, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; pp. 167-88.
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Tichi, C. 1987. Shifting Gears: Technology, Literature, Culture in Modernist America. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press.
Vaughan, D. 1990. The image of the engineer in the popular imagination, 1880-1980. Bulletin of Science, Technology, and Society, 10: 301-4.Williams, R. 2000. “All that is solid melts into air:” Historians of technology in the information revolution. Technology and Culture 41: 641-68.