Engineering -- an endless frontier
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Engineering the second industrial revolution
The second industrial revolution, symbolized by the advent of electricity and mass production, was driven by many branches of engineering.  Chemical and electrical engineering developed in close collaboration with chemistry and physics and played vital roles in the rise of chemical, electrical, and telecommunication industries.  Marine engineers tamed the peril of ocean exploration.  Aeronautic engineers turned the ancient dream of flight into a travel convenience for ordinary people.  Control engineers accelerated the pace of automation.  Industrial engineers designed and managed mass production and distribution systems.  College engineering curricula were well established and graduate schools appeared.  Workshops turned into to laboratories, tinkering became industrial research, and individual inventions were organized into systematic innovations.
Technological penetration in the second industrial revolution

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