|Engineering -- an endless frontier|
||When engineering first emerged as a modern profession, "civil" broadly meant civilian, as distinct from military. As engineers with various expertise separately developed their systematic knowledge and professional organizations, the scope of "civil engineering" narrowed to construction, which was the first to develop scientific principles. For instance, the principle of cantilever was first investigated by Galileo Galilei, whose illustration is reproduced on the left. The applicability of the general principle to bridges, tall buildings, and many other constructions exemplifies the scientific nature of engineering.|
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